Course Details

ELE 410 Communication Systems Design
2021-2022 Fall term information

The course is not open this term

Timing data are obtained using weekly schedule program tables. To make sure whether the course is cancelled or time-shifted for a specific week one should consult the supervisor and/or follow the announcements.

Course definition tables are extracted from the ECTS Course Catalog web site of Hacettepe University ( in real-time and displayed here. Please check the appropriate page on the original site against any technical problems. Course data last updated on 15/09/2021.


Course Name Code Semester Theory
Credit ECTS
Prerequisite(s)ELE425 Telecommunication Theory II
Course languageEnglish
Course typeElective 
Mode of DeliveryFace-to-Face 
Learning and teaching strategiesLecture
Question and Answer
Problem Solving
Instructor (s)Faculty members 
Course objectiveIt is aimed to give the following abilities to the students; Understand fundamentals of radiation and antennas, signal propagation in cellular radio systems. Understand and calculate the receiver noise and control its effect on the SNR at the receiver output. Understand the fundamentals of indoor and outdoor propagation mechanisms and modeling these channels. Understand the operation of cellular radio systems, including 2G and 3G, and calculate their performance.  
Learning outcomes
  1. A student who completes the course successfully will understand L.O.1. fundamentals of radiation and antennas .
  2. L.O.2. sources of the receiver noise, its calculation and its effect on the SNR at the receiver output.
  3. L.O.3. the fundamentals of atmospheric propagation; effects of the ground and other sources of scattering and modeling indoor and outdoor propagation mechanisms.
  4. L.O.4. the fundamentals of cellular radio systems, including 2G and 3G, and performance calculations.
Course ContentAntenna fundamentals
Receiver noise and communication link budget
Channel modeling for mobile communications
Cellular radio systems
Introduction to 3G systems
Referencesřafak, M., Digital Communications, Lecture notes, 2012
Rappaport, T.S., Wireless Communications, Prentice Hall, 1999.
Goldsmith, A., Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Proakis, J.G. and Salehi, M., Communication Systems Engineering, Prentice Hall: 1994. ISBN: 0 13 300625 5
Carlson, A. B., Communication Systems, McGraw Hill: 1986. ISBN: 0 07 100560 9

Course outline weekly

Week 1Antenna fundamentals. Radiation from Hertz dipole and linear dipole antenna.
Week 2Fundamental antenna concepts; gain, directivity, radiation pattern, polarization, effective receiving area and effective antenna height. Impedance and polarization matching. Friis transmission formula.
Week 3Receiver noise and communications link budget. Receiver noise. Noise figure and equivalent noise temperature of cascaded receiver components. Antenna noise temperature. Receiver signal-to-noise ratio.
Week 4Channel modeling for mobile communications. Propagation impairments; attenuation, reflection, diffraction, tropospheric refraction, ducting, atmospheric noise. Free space and line-of-sight propagation. Fresnel zones. Knife-edge diffraction.
Week 5Reflection and scattering from earth?s surface. Propagation over flat and spherical earth. Surface roughness, tropospheric propagation. Introduction to multipath propagation. Outdoor channel modeling; Hata and COST 231 models.
Week 6Indoor channel modeling; signal penetration into buildings. Atmospheric effects in terrestrial links; signal attenuation, noise and distortion effects. Atmospheric absorption, rain attenuation. Antenna noise.
Week 7Midterm Exam I
Week 8Cellular radio systems. Fundamental concepts of cellular radio systems, GSM architecture, GSM frame structure, power control. Speech coding in GSM.
Week 9Frequency-reuse, cluster size, handover, co-channel interference, cell-sectorization, cell-splitting, antenna tilting.
Week 10Adaptive antennas; switch beam vs. adaptive beamforming. Statistical analysis of co-channel interference due to fading and shadowing. Statistical analysis of cell coverage.
Week 11Traffic calculations: Erlang-B and Erlang-C formulas. Cell capacity.
Week 12Midterm Exam II
Week 13Introduction to 3G systems. Introduction to CDMA; PN sequences, variable spreading. Multi-user interference and capacity of CDMA systems
Week 14Beyond 3G systems. Introduction to OFDM and OFDMA. HSPA and LTE technologies.
Week 15Preparation for Final exam
Week 16Final exam

Assesment methods

Course activitiesNumberPercentage
Field activities00
Specific practical training00
Final exam150
Percentage of semester activities contributing grade succes250
Percentage of final exam contributing grade succes150

Workload and ECTS calculation

Activities Number Duration (hour) Total Work Load
Course Duration (x14) 14 3 42
Laboratory 0 0 0
Specific practical training000
Field activities000
Study Hours Out of Class (Preliminary work, reinforcement, ect)14342
Presentation / Seminar Preparation000
Homework assignment000
Midterms (Study duration)22550
Final Exam (Study duration) 13535
Total Workload3166169

Matrix Of The Course Learning Outcomes Versus Program Outcomes

D.9. Key Learning OutcomesContrubition level*
1. PO1. Possesses the theoretical and practical knowledge required in Electrical and Electronics Engineering discipline.    X 
2. PO2. Utilizes his/her theoretical and practical knowledge in the fields of mathematics, science and electrical and electronics engineering towards finding engineering solutions.    X
3. PO3. Determines and defines a problem in electrical and electronics engineering, then models and solves it by applying the appropriate analytical or numerical methods.   X  
4. PO4. Designs a system under realistic constraints using modern methods and tools.  X  
5. PO5. Designs and performs an experiment, analyzes and interprets the results. X   
6. PO6. Possesses the necessary qualifications to carry out interdisciplinary work either individually or as a team member.   X  
7. PO7. Accesses information, performs literature search, uses databases and other knowledge sources, follows developments in science and technology.  X  
8. PO8. Performs project planning and time management, plans his/her career development.  X  
9. PO9. Possesses an advanced level of expertise in computer hardware and software, is proficient in using information and communication technologies.  X  
10. PO10. Is competent in oral or written communication; has advanced command of English.  X  
11. PO11. Has an awareness of his/her professional, ethical and social responsibilities. X   
12. PO12. Has an awareness of the universal impacts and social consequences of engineering solutions and applications; is well-informed about modern-day problems. X   
13. PO13. Is innovative and inquisitive; has a high level of professional self-esteem.  X  

*1 Lowest, 2 Low, 3 Average, 4 High, 5 Highest

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